Kamis, 15 Juni 2017

Perkembangan Populasi Wereng Batang Coklat Nilaparvata lugens Stal dan Predatornya pada Berbagai Teknik Budidaya Padi

Arifin, M., I.B.G. Suryawan, B.H. Priyanto, dan A. Alwi. 1997. Perkembangan populasi wereng batang coklat Nilaparvata lugens Stal dan predatornya pada berbagai teknik budidaya padi. Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian, Fakultas Pertanian UISU. 16(1): 24-32.



Muhammad Arifin1, Ida Bagus Gde Suryawan2,
Budi Hari Priyanto3, dan Asnimar Alwi4

1 Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Tanaman Pangan, Bogor,
2 Instalasi Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Denpasar,
3 Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanaman Pangan, Bogor,
4 Balai Penelitian Tanaman Rempah dan Obat, Bogor


Abstract

Development of Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stal Population and Its Predators at Different Cultural Techniques of Rice Production.  An experiment was conducted in irrigated rice field with a rice-rice cropping pattern in Pemalang district 1995/1996 planting season. The objective was to select a cultural technique that could stabilize brown planthopper (BPH) population. The experiment used a sub-sample design with a two-stage sampling method and a visual observation method of insect population. There were four treatment combinations of planting time (simultaneous and unsimultaneous) and insecticide (with and without insecticide application). Results indicated that during the planting season, the BPH population was relatively stable and fluctuated at a low level, i.e 3.1 - 10.5 hoppers/15 hills, and the predator population fluctuated at a high level, i.e. 9.8 - 23.1 predators/15 hills). At unsimultaneous planting time and without insecticide application, BPH and predator population were higher than those at simultaneous planting time and with insecticide application. At unsimultaneous planting time, the BPH population just before harvest was significantly increased. Therefore, it was suspected that the population would explode in the next planting season. It was concluded that the cultural technique with a combination of simultaneous planting time and without insecticide application was suitable to be applied at the time and location or the experiment. The insecticide application, especially at an unsimultaneous planting time, decreased farmer income and gave opportunity to BPH to explode.
Keywords:  Cultural technique, rice, predator, brown planthopper.

Minggu, 05 Maret 2017

Pembiakan dengan Makanan Buatan dan Patogenisitas NPV terhadap Leucania separata Walker

Arifin, M. 1983. Pembiakan dengan makanan buatan dan patogenisitas NPV terhadap Leucania separata Walker. Kongres Nasional Biologi VI. Surabaya, 17-19 Juli 1983. Perhimpunan Biologi Indonesia (PBI). 12 p.

Muhammad Arifin
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Bogor


ABSTRAK

Penelitian pembiakan dengan makanan buatan untuk penyediaan serangga inang dan patogenisitas NPV (nuclear-polyhedrosis virus) terhadap Leucania separata telah dilakukan di Balai Penelitian Tanaman Pangan Bogor. Makanan buatan untuk pembiakan ulat L. separata diuji dengan membandingkan beberapa sifat biologi ulat tersebut pada beberapa tanaman inangnya. Patogenisitas NPV diuji pada berbagai umur ulat L. separata.
Ulat L. separata dapat dibiakkan dengan makanan buatan. Sifat biologinya sama dengan ulat yang dibiakkan dengan tanaman inangnya. Ulat instar 1 sampai 3 lebih rentan terhadap NPV daripada ulat instar 4 dan 5. Ulat instar 5 menunjukkan ketahanan 100 kali lebih besar daripada ulat instar 1.


Selasa, 28 Februari 2017

Ambang Ekonomi Ulat Grayak, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) pada Tanaman Padi

Kartohardjono, A. dan Arifin, M. 2004. Ambang ekonomi ulat grayak, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera; Noctuidae) pada tanaman padi. Ekologia. 4(2): 41-46.

Arifin Kartohardjono1 dan Muhammad Arifin2
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Padi (BALITPA)
Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi dan Sumber Daya Genetika Pertanian (BALITBIO)


ABSTRACT

Pest becomes one of productivity handicap in the field of irrigated rice plantation. One type of the potential pest with its sudden attack and often cause a yield failure is the larvae of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) which are called armyworm (ulat grayak). The aims of this research are 1) to determine the stage rice plant destruction due to the larvae attack, 2) to determine the rice yield loss due to the attack, 3) to obtain an integrated pest control packet for rice plant, like: a) economic threshold for the pest larvae, b) the loss of economical yield to becomes in basis making a decision to control the pest larvae. This research was conducted at the greenhouse of Balitpa, at Bogor on April 2001 and at the yield station (1500 m2) at the area of Indramayu, West Java, starting at the dry season on June 2001. Paddy variety involved is IR64 with a planting period of 30.45 and 60 days after transplanting. Larvae density treatment is 0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 larvae of 3rd instar per hill. Replication taken is 3 times at the field and 4 times at the greenhouse. Experiment done are using random group program which is factorial designed with 2 factors (larvae density and plant age). Observation is conducted against plant destruction and yield component. Observation results show that: 1) one larvae causes plant damage at the age of 30,45, and 60 days after planting at a rate between 7.21% - 22,69% and able to decrease the yield from 16.9% to 36.7%, 2) the threshold of the yield decrease for plants with an age of 45 dap (days after planting) is around 2 to 3 larvae per hill, while for the plants age of the 30 dap, 4 larvae per hill will decrease the yield up to 69%, 3) the economical threshold with an assumed control cost of Rp 185,000,- per ha with paddy yield price of Rp 14,000,- per kg is taken for case of larvae at 3rd instar,  while for the plant age of 30 dap has a value of 10.8 larvae per hill.
Key words: rice, armyworm, economic threshold

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Senin, 27 Februari 2017

TUMBUHAN INDONESIA POTENSIAL SEBAGAI INSEKTISIDA NABATI UNTUK MENGENDALIKAN HAMA KUMBANG BUBUK JAGUNG (Sitophilusspp.)

M. Sudjak Saenong
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Serealia
Jalan Dr. Ratulangi 274, Kotak Pos 173, Maros 90514, Indonesia
Telp. (0411)  371529, Faks.  (0411) 371961
E-mail: msudjaksaenong@gmail.com

ABSTRAK
Indonesia mempunyai keragaman flora yang sangat besar. Lebih dari 400 ribu jenis tumbuhan telah teridentifikasi bahan kimianya dan 10 ribu di antaranya mengandung metabolit sekunder yang potensial sebagai bahan baku pestisida nabati. Hasil-hasil penelitian menunjukkan senyawa metabolit sekunder dapat mengendalikan populasi serangga hama. Sifat dan mekanisme kerja bahan nabati tersebut dalam melindungi tanaman dapat sebagai antifitopatogenik (antibiotik  pertanian),  fitotoksik atau  mengatur  pertumbuhan tanaman (fitotoksin, hormon, dan sejenisnya), dan bahan aktif terhadap serangga (hormon serangga, feromon, antifidan, repelen, atraktan,  dan  insektisida).  Tulisan  ini membahas  pemanfaatan insektisida  nabati  dalam  pengendalian  hama  kumbang  bubuk (Sitophilus spp.) pada jagung selama penyimpanan. Selain pada jagung, hama ini juga merusak komoditas tanaman pangan penting lainnya seperti padi, sorgum, dan gandum. Untuk mengatasi hama tersebut, pemanfaatan insektisida nabati dapat menjadi salah satu pilihan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan metabolit sekunder dapat menekan perkembangan populasi serangga hama. Kandungan metabolit sekunder pada tanaman antara lain adalah senyawa atsiri seperti minyak atsiri, sitral, geraniol, tanin, piperin, asetogenin,  azadirahtin,  saponin,  asaron,  akoragermakron, akolamonin, isoakolamin,  kalameon,  kalamediol,  alfamirin, kaemfasterol, salanin, nimbin, nimbidin, asetogenin, dan beberapa kelompok asam seperti asam sianida, asam oleanolat, dan asam galoyonat.  Komponen alkaloid  hampir  terdapat  dalam  semua tanaman  yang  diuji,  selain  flavonoid  lainnya  yang berdampak langsung terhadap kehidupan serangga hama.
Kata kunci:Tumbuhan, insektisida nabati, Sitophilusspp., jagung

Efektivitas Trichoderma sp. dan Gliocladium sp. sebagai Agen Biokontrol Hayati Penyakit Busuk Pelepah Daun pada Jagung

Soenartiningsih, Nurasiah Djaenuddin, dan M. Sudjak Saenong
Balai Penelitian Tanaman Serealia
Jl. Dr. Ratulangi No. 274, Maros, Sulawesi Selatan
Email: soenartiningsih@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT. 
Efficacy of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. to Control Sheath Blight Disease (Rhizoctonia solani) on Maize. Sheath blight is an important disease in corn. The disease could cause significant yield loss when infection occurs on susceptible varieties. Disease control using the microorganism antagonist is an alternative for disease management. Research was carried out in a laboratory, greenhouse and field from 2010 to 2012. The research objective was to compare several biological agents for controlling sheath blight disease on corn. In vitro laboratory tests identified that out of sixteen isolates of microorganisms, only 3 isolates which had the potency to suppress the pathogen of sheath blight over 50%, namely TT1; TM; and GM. Conidia development among the three isolates of microorganism the highest was by TT1. In the greenhouse, three isolates of microorganisms showed potential of decreasing sheath blight disease up to 70%. The Gliocladium isolates decreases the disease by 53%. Research results from the field indicated the antagonist had decreased sheath blight disease by 67%. Isolates of Trichoderma and Gliocladium fungus could reduce the yield loss by 23% by suppressing the infection of sheath blight disease.

Keywords: Maize, Trichoderma, Gliocladium, antagonist, sheath
blight disease.

The Use of SlNPV as A Biological Agent to Control Cutworm on Soybean

Arifin, M. 1999. The use of SlNPV as a biological agent to control cutworm on soybean. Seminar on Pest Surveillance and Forcasting. Direktorat Bina Perlindungan Tanaman Pangan. Bogor, 31 Januari 1999. 11 p.

Muhammad Arifin
Research Institute for Food Crops Biotechnology, Bogor


INTRODUCTION

Spodoptera litura nuclear-polyhedrosis virus (SlNPV) (Borrelinavirus litura) is one of the insect pathogens infecting cutworm (Spodoptera litura) on soybean. This virus was first discovered in cutworm larvae in Central Lampung (Arifin and Waskito, 1986). Since 1985, experiments on the use of SlNPV to control cutworm were carried out at the now defunct, Bogor Research Institute for Food Crops.
Numerous experiments reported that SlNPV have high biotic potency (Arifin, 1993). As a biological agent, SlNPV is compatible with the integrated pest management (IPM) concept because: (a) its host-specificity only to the soybean cutworm and some other noctuids species, (b) it does not affect predators and parasitoids, and does not upset non-target host, human body, and environment, (c) it may alleviate insecticide resistant problem, and (d) it is compatible with most other control methods (Maddox, 1975; Starnes et al., 1993). There are several major reasons whySlNPV is suitable for a biological agent to control cutworm: (a) cutworms is a major pest attacking various kinds of vegetable and food crops, (b) considerable amount of broadspectrum, toxic, synthetic insecticides are used against cutworm, and (c) many cutworms are resistant to most major insecticides group. Efforts to develop SlNPV as a biological control agent can be conducted in three steps: (a) production of SlNPV, (b) solve the constraints affecting the effectiveness ofSlNPV, and (c) optimizing application techniques of SlNPV.
The purpose of this paper is to provide information on biological properties, production, and application techniques of SlNPV as a guidance in the control of cutworm on soybean.

Kamis, 16 Februari 2017

Pemanfaatan Musuh Alami dalam Pengendalian Hama Utama Tanaman Teh, Kopi, dan Kelapa

Arifin, M. 1999. Pemanfaatan musuh alami dalam pengendalian hama utama tanaman teh, kopi, dan kelapa. Seminar Pemasyarakatan PHT Tanaman Perkebunan. Dinas Perkebunan Kabupaten Bogor, 4-5 Agustus 1999. 19 p.


Muhammad Arifin
Balai Penelitian Bioteknologi Tanaman Pangan


PENDAHULUAN
Pada tanaman perkebunan sering dijumpai berbagai jenis serangga. Tidak semua jenis serangga tersebut berstatus hama. Beberapa jenis di antaranya justru merupakan serangga berguna, misalnya penyerbuk dan musuh alami (parasitoid dan predatcr). Ada juga jenis serangga berstatus tidak jelas karena hanya berasosiasi saja di pertanaman.
Ada ratusan jenis serangga berstatus hama pada tanaman perkebunan. Kehadiran serangga tersebut tidak selalu merugikan, sehingga tidak diperlukan pengendalian. Meskipun demikian, pertumbuhan populasinya harus diwaspadai agar tidak terjadi lonjakan yang mengarah ke eksplosi. Tidak terjadinya gangguan hama pada pertanaman karena populasinya terkendali secara alami, baik oleh faktor abiotis, misalnya iklim yang tidak mendukung, maupun oleh faktor biotis, misalnya tidak tersedianya sumber pakan dan berlimpahnya populasi musuh alami.
Di antara serangga-serangga hama, ada yang dikelompokkan sebagai hama utama karena memiliki potensi biotik (daya reproduksi, daya makan atau daya rusak, dan daya adaptasi) yang tinggi. Hama tersebut selalu mengakibatkan kehilangan hasil panen yang relatif tinggi sepanjang tahun, bahkan sering dilaporkan mengalami eksplosi, apabila kondisi lingkungan mendukung. Untuk mengendalikannya, petani pada umumnya menggunakan pestisida (kimiawi) yang diaplikasikan secara terjadual dengan frekuensi tinggi, tanpa memperhatikan keadaan populasi di lapang. Penggunaan insektisida menjadi berlebihan sehingga seringkali tidak mengenai sasaran, bahkan dapat menimbulkan dampak negatif baik terhadap pendapatan petani, maupun lingkungan, seperti musnahnya serangga berguna dan munculnya gejala resurgensi dan resistensi hama. Cara tersebut dilakukan karena belum tersedia cara pengendalian lain yang efektif dan tidak berdampak negatif di tingkat petani.